Reading List

Further Reading about the Platypus

CHILDREN’S BOOKS

Fanning, D. (1991). Platypus. (Houghton Mifflin: Wantirna South, Vic).

Reilly, P. and Rolland, W. (1991). The Platypus. (Kangaroo Press: Kenthurst, NSW).

Stodart, E. (1997). The Adventures of Softbill the Strong. (Envirobook Publishing: Sydney, NSW).

Lane, A. and King, V. (2001) There are Platypuses in our Creek. (Barrie Publishing: Kew, VIC).

Reilly, P. and Traynor, K. (2003). Ornithorhynchus the Platypus. (Bristlebird Books: Anglesea, VIC).

Caper, W. (2009). Platypus – A Century-long Mystery. (Bearport Publishing: New York).

BOOKS AND GENERAL REFERENCES

Burrell, H. (1927). The Platypus. (Angus and Robertson: Sydney, NSW. Reprinted in 1974 by Rigby: Adelaide, SA).

Griffiths, M. (1978). The Biology of the Monotremes. (Academic Press: New York).

Fleay, D. (1980). Paradoxical Platypus. (Jacaranda Press: Milton, QLD. Reprinted in 2009 by Friends of Fleays: Burleigh Town, QLD).

Grant, T.R. (1989). Ornithorhynchidae. Pp. 436-450 in Fauna of Australia (Volume 1B, Mammalia) (edited by D.W. Walton and B.J. Richardson). (Australian Government Publishing Service: Canberra, ACT).

Augee, M.L., editor. (1992). Platypus and Echidnas. (The Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales: Mosman, NSW).

Moyal, A. (2001). Platypus – The Extraordinary Story of How a Curious Creature Baffled the World. (Allen & Unwin: Crows Nest, NSW).

Jackson, S., Serena, M. and Middleton, D. (2003). Platypus. Pp. 1-32 in Australian Mammals: Biology and Captive Management (edited by S. Jackson). (CSIRO: Collingwood, VIC).

Serena, M. (2003). Duck-billed platypus. Pp. 243-248 in Mammals (Volume 12, Grzimek’s Animal Life Encyclopedia) (edited by D.G. Kleiman, V. Geist, M. Hutchins and M.C. McDade. (Gale Group: Farmington Hills, Michigan).

Grant, T. (2007). The Platypus. 4th Edition. (CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood, Vic).

Parer-Cook, E. and Parer, D. (2015). Platypus – World’s Strangest Animal.  (Zaurora Books: Melbourne, VIC).

SELECTED SCIENTIFIC ARTICLESThe following list of research papers is not meant to be exhaustive or complete, but we hope will at least provide a sense of the range of published scientific literature that is available.  Papers have been grouped (to the best of our ability) according to the following topics: (1) Body size and condition, (2) Body temperature, (3) Diet and food competition, (4) Disease and mortality, (5) Distribution, (6) Diving ability and foraging behavior, (7) Electroreception and other senses, (8) Embryology and development, (9) Field research methods, (10) Fossil history, (11) Genetics, (12) Habitat use, (13) Movements and home range size, (14) Life history attributes, (15) Reproduction, (16) Stress, (17) Venom and (18) Water quality and flow relationships. 

BODY SIZE AND CONDITION

Grant, T.R. and Carrick, F.N. (1978). Some aspects of the ecology of the platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus, in the upper Shoalhaven River, New South Wales. Australian Zoologist 20: 181-199.

Grant, T.R. and Temple-Smith, P.D. (1983). Size, seasonal weight change and growth in platypuses, Ornithorhynchus anatinus (Monotremata: Ornithorhynchidae), from rivers and lakes of New South Wales. Australian Mammalogy 6: 51-60.

Hulbert, A.J. and Grant, T.R. (1983). A seasonal study of body condition and water turnover in a free-living population of platypuses, Ornithorhynchus anatinus. Australian Journal of Zoology 31: 109-116.

Furlan, E., Griffiths, J., Gust, N., Armistead, R., Mitrovski, P., Handasyde, K.A., Serena, M., Hoffmann, A.A. and Weeks, A.R. (2011). Is body size variation in the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) associated with environmental variables? Australian Journal of Zoology 59: 201-215.

Gust, N. and Griffiths, J. (2011). Platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) body size, condition and population structure in Tasmanian river catchments: variability and potential mucormycosis impacts. Wildlife Research 38: 271-289.

BODY TEMPERATURE

Grant, T.R. and Dawson, T.J. (1978). Temperature regulation in the platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus: maintenance of body temperature in air and water. Physiological Zoology 51: 1-6.

Grant, T.R. and Dawson, T.J. (1978). Temperature regulation in the platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus: production and loss of metabolic heat in air and water. Physiological Zoology 51: 315-332.

Grant, T.R. (1983). Body temperatures of free-ranging platypuses, Ornithorhynchus anatinus (Monotremata), with observations on their use of burrows. Australian Journal of Zoology 31: 117-122.

Grigg, G., Beard, L., Grant, T. and Augee, M. (1992). Body temperature and diurnal activity patterns in the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) during winter. Australian Journal of Zoology 40: 135-142.

DIET AND FOOD COMPETITION

Faragher, R.A., Grant, T.R. and Carrick, F.N. (1979). Food of the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) with notes on the food of the brown trout (Salmo trutta) in the Shoalhaven River, N.S.W. Australian Journal of Ecology 4: 171-179.

Grant, T.R. (1982). Food of the platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus (Monotremata: Ornithorhynchidae) from various water bodies in New South Wales. Australian Mammalogy 5: 235-236.

Krueger, B., Hunter, S. and Serena, M. (1992). Husbandry, diet and behavior of platypus at Healesville Sanctuary.  International Zoo Yearbook 31: 64-71.

McLachlan-Troup, T.A., Dickman, C.R. and Grant, T.R. (2009). Diet and dietary selectivity of the platypus in relation to season, sex and macroinvertebrate assemblages. Journal of Zoology 2009: 1-10.

Marchant, R. and Grant, T.R. (2015). The productivity of the macroinvertebrate prey of the platypus in the upper Shoalhaven River, New South Wales. Marine and Freshwater Research 66: 1128-1137.

Klamt, M., Davis, J.A., Thompson, R.M., Marchant, R., and Grant, T.R. (2016). Trophic relationships of the platypus: insights from stable isotope and cheek pouch dietary analyses. Marine and Freshwater Research, in press (doi: 10.1071/MF15004).

DISEASE AND MORTALITY

McColl, K.A. and Whittington, R.J. (1985). Leptospiral titres in wild platypuses (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) in New South Wales. Australian Veterinary Journal 62: 66.

Richards, G.C. (1986). Predation on a platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus (Monotremata: Ornithorhynchidae), by a goshawk. Australian Mammalogy 9: 67.

Marshall, B. (1992). Late Pleistocene human exploitation of the platypus in southern Tasmania. Pp. 268-276 in Platypus and Echidnas (edited by M.L. Augee). (The Royal Zoological Society of NSW: Mosman, NSW).

Connolly, J.H., Obendorf, D.L., Whittington, R.J. and Muir, D.B. (1998). Causes of morbidity and mortality in platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) from Tasmania, with particular reference to Mucor amphibiorum infection. Australian Mammalogy 20: 177-187.

Munday, B.L., Whittington, R.J. and Stewart, N.J. (1998). Disease conditions and subclinical infections of the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus). Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B 353: 1093-1099.

Serena, M. and Williams, G.A. (1998). Rubber and plastic rubbish: a summary of the hazard posed to platypus Ornithorhynchus anatinus in suburban habitats. The Victorian Naturalist 115: 47-49.

Rakick, R., Rakick, B., Cook, L. and Munks, S. (2001). Observations of a platypus foraging in the sea and hunting by a wedge-tailed eagle. Tasmanian Naturalist 123: 3-4.

Booth, R. and Connolly, J. (2008). Platypuses. Pp. 103-132 in Medicine of Australian Mammals (edited by L. Vogelnest and R. Woods). (CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood).

Gust, N., Griffiths, J., Driessen, M., Philips, A., Stewart, N. and Geraghty, D. (2009). Distribution, prevalence and persistence of mucormycosis in Tasmanian platypuses. Australian Journal of Zoology 57: 245-254.

Serena, M. and Williams, G. (2010). Factors contributing to platypus mortality in Victoria. The Victorian Naturalist 127 (5): 178-183.

Serena, M., Grant, T.R. and Williams, G.A. (2016). Reducing bycatch mortality in crustacean traps: effect of trap design on platypus and yabby retention rates. Fisheries Research 175, 43-50.

DISTRIBUTION

Grant, T.R. (1992). Historical and current distribution of the platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus, in Australia. Pp. 232-254 in Platypus and Echidnas (edited by M. L. Augee). (Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales: Mosman, NSW).

Grant, T.R. (1993). The past and present freshwater fishery in New South Wales and the distribution and status of the platypus Ornithorhynchus anatinusAustralian Zoologist 29: 105-113.

Connolly, J.H. and Obendorf, D.L. (1998). Distribution, captures and physical characteristics of the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) in Tasmania. Australian Mammalogy 20: 231-237.

Grant, T.R. (1998). Current and historical occurrence of platypuses, Ornithorhynchus anatinus, around Sydney. Australian Mammalogy 20: 257-266.

Lintermans, M. (1998). The status and distribution of the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) in the Australian Capital Territory with notes on some localised declines.  Australian Mammalogy 20: 306.

Turnbull, R.W. (1998). Distribution of the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) in the Bombala River catchment, south-eastern New South Wales. Australian Mammalogy 20: 251-256.

Rohweder, D.A. and Baverstock, P.R. (1999). Distribution of platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) in the Richmond River catchment, northern New South Wales. Australian Zoologist 31: 30-37.

Grant, T.R., Gehrke, P.C., Harris, J.H. and Hartley, S. (2000). Distribution of the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) in New South Wales: results of the 1994-1996 New South Wales rivers survey. Australian Mammalogy 21: 177-184.

Otley, H.M. (2001). The use of a community-based survey to determine the distribution of the platypus Ornithorhynchus anatinus in the Huon River catchment, southern Tasmania. Australian Zoologist 31: 632-641.

Lunney, D., Grant, T. and Matthews, A. (2004). Distribution of the platypus in the Bellinger catchment from community knowledge and field survey and its relationship to river disturbance. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 125: 243-258.

Connolly, J.H., Claridge, T., Cordell, S.M., Nielsen, S. and Dutton, G.J. (2016). Distribution and characteristics of the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) in the Murrumbidgee catchment. Australian Mammalogy 38: 58-67.

DIVING ABILITY AND FORAGING BEHAVIOUR

Kruuk, H. (1993). The diving behaviour of the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) in waters with different trophic status. Journal of Applied Ecology 30: 592-598.

Evans, B.K., Jones, D.R., Baldwin, J. and Gabbott, R.J. (1994). Diving ability of the platypus. Australian Journal of Zoology 42: 17-27.

Manger, P.R. and Pettigrew, J.D. (1995). Electroreception and the feeding behavior of platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus: Monotremata: Mammalia). Philosophical Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B 347: 359-381.

Bethge, P., Munks, S. and Nicol, S. (2001). Energetics of foraging and locomotion in the platypus Ornithorhynchus anatinusJournal of Comparative Physiology B 171: 497-506.

Bethge, P., Munks, S., Otley, H. and Nicol, S. (2003). Diving behaviour, dive cycles and aerobic dive limit in the platypus Ornithorhynchus anatinusComparative Biochemistry and Physiology A 136: 799-809.

ELECTRORECEPTION AND OTHER SENSES

Gates, G.R., Saunders, J.C. and Boek, G.R. (1974). Peripheral auditory function in the platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinusJournal of the Acoustical Society of America 56: 152-156.

Scheich, H., Langner, G., Tidemann, C., Coles, R.B. and Guppy, A. (1986). Electroreception and electrolocation in platypus. Nature 319: 401-402.

Bohringer, R.C. (1992). The platypus bill receptors and their central connections. Pp. 194-203 in Platypus and Echidnas (edited by M. L. Augee). (Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales: Mosman, NSW).

Proske, U., Gregory, J.E. and Iggo, A. (1998). A review of recent developments in the study of electroreception in the platypus. Australian Mammalogy 20: 163-170.

Pettigrew, J.D., Manger, P.R. and Fine, S.L.B. (1998). The sensory world of the platypus. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B 347: 1199-1210.

Proske, U. and Gregory, J.E. (2004). The role of push rods in the platypus and echidna – some speculations. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 125: 319-326.

Rowe, M.J., Mahns, D.A. and Sahai, V. (2004). Monotreme tactile mechanisms: from sensory nerves to cerebral cortex. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 125: 301-317.

EMBRYOLOGY AND DEVELOPMENT

Hughes, R.L. and Hall, L.S. (1998). Early development and embryology of the platypus. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B 347, 1101-1114.

Manger, P.R., Hall, L.S. and Pettigrew, J.D. (1998). The development of the external features of the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus). Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B 353, 1115-1125.

Grant, T.R. and Temple-Smith, P.D. (1998). Growth of nestling and juvenile platypuses (Ornithorhynchus anatinus). Australian Mammalogy 20: 221-230.

FIELD RESEARCH METHODS

Grant, T.R. and Whittington, R.J. (1991). The use of freeze-branding and implanted transponder tags as a permanent marking method for platypuses, Ornithorhynchus anatinus (Monotremata: Ornithorhynchidae). Australian Mammalogy 14: 147-150.

Bethge, P., Munks, S.A., Nicol, S. and Otley, H. (2000). The use of dataloggers to determine behavioural activity in the platypus. Australian Mammalogy 21: 262-263.

Easton, L., Williams, G. and Serena, M. (2008). Monthly variation in observed activity of the platypus Ornithorhynchus anatinusThe Victorian Naturalist 125: 104-109.

Serena, M. and Williams, G.A. (2011). Effect of sex and age on temporal variation and direction of platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) captures in fyke nets. Australian Mammalogy 34: 75-82.

Griffiths, J., Kelly, T. and Weeks, A. (2013). Net-avoidance behavior in platypuses. Australian Mammalogy 35: 245-247.

Williams, G.A., Serena, M. and Grant, T.R. (2013). Age-related change in spurs and spur sheaths of the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus). Australian Mammalogy 35: 107-114.

FOSSIL HISTORY

Pascual, R., Archer, M., Jaureguisar, E.O., Prado, J.L., Godthelp, H. and Hand, S. (1992). First discovery of monotremes in South America. Nature 356: 704-705.

Musser, A.M. (1998). Evolution, biogeography and paleontology of the Ornithorhynchidae. Australian Mammalogy 20: 147-162.

GENETICS

Westerman, M. and Edwards, D. (1991). The divergence between echidna (Monotremata: Tachyglossidae) and platypus (Monotremata: Ornithorhynchidae) – new data from DNA studies. Australian Mammalogy 14: 115-120.

Warren, W.C. et al. (2008). Genome analysis of the platypus reveals unique signatures of evolution. Nature 453: 175-184.

Kolomyjec, S.H., Chong, J.Y.T., Blair, D., Gongora, J., Grant, T.R., Johnson, C.N. and Moran, C. (2009). Population genetics of the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus): a fine-scale look at adjacent river systems. Australian Journal of Zoology 57: 225-234.

Murtagh, C.E. and Sharman, G.B. (2009). Monotreme chromosomes: an introductory review. Australian Journal of Zoology 57: 149-155.

Furlan, E., Umina, P.A., Mitrovski, P.J., Gust, N., Griffiths, J. and Weeks, A.R. (2010). High levels of genetic divergence between Tasmanian and Victorian platypuses, Ornithorhynchus anatinus, as revealed by microsatellite loci. Conservation Genetics 11: 319-323.

Gongora, J., Swan, A.B., Chong, A.Y., Ho, S.Y.W., Damayanti, C.S., Kolomyjec, S., Grant, T., Miller, E., Blair, D., Furlan, E. and Gust, N. (2011). Genetic structure and phylogeography of platypuses revealed by mitochondrial DNA. Journal of Zoology 286: 110-119.

Furlan, E.M., Griffiths, J., Gust, N., Handasyde, K.A., Grant, T.R., Gruber, B. and Weeks, A.R. (2013). Dispersal patterns and population structuring among platypuses, Ornithorhynchus anatinus, throughout south-eastern Australia. Conservation Genetics 14: 837-853.

Kolomyjec, S.H., Grant, T.R., Johnson, C.N. and Blair, D. (2013). Regional population structuring and conservation units in the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus). Australian Journal of Zoology 661: 378-385.

HABITAT USE

Ellem, B.A., Bryant, A. and O’Connor, A. (1998). Statistical modelling of platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) habitat preferences using generalised linear models. Australian Mammalogy 20: 281-285.

Serena, M., Thomas, J.L., Williams, G.A., and Officer, R.C.E. (1998). Use of stream and river habitats by the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) in an urban fringe environment. Australian Journal of Zoology 46: 267-282.

Serena, M., Worley, M., Swinnerton, M. and Williams, G.A. (2001). Effect of food availability and habitat on the distribution of platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) foraging activity. Australian Journal of Zoology 49: 263-277.

Grant, T. (2004). Depth and substrate selection by platypuses, Ornithorhynchus anatinus, in the Lower Hastings River, New South Wales. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 125: 235-241.

Koch, N., Munks, S.A., Utesch, M., Davies, P.E. and McIntosh, P.D. (2006). The platypus Ornithorhynchus anatinus in headwater streams, and effects of pre-Code forest clearfelling, in the South Esk River catchment, Tasmania, Australia. Australian Zoologist 33: 458-473.

MOVEMENTS AND HOME RANGE SIZE

Grant, T.R. (1992). Captures, movements and dispersal of platypuses, Ornithorhynchus anatinus, in the Shoalhaven River, New South Wales, with evaluation of capture and marking techniques. Pp. 255-262 in Platypus and Echidnas (edited by M. L. Augee). (Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales: Mosman, NSW).

Grant, T.R., Grigg, G.C., Beard, L.A. and Augee, M.L. (1992). Movements and burrow use by platypuses, Ornithorhynchus anatinus, in the Thredbo River, New South Wales.  Pp. 263-267 in Platypus and Echidnas (edited by M.L. Augee). (The Royal Zoological Society of NSW: Mosman, NSW).

Serena, M. (1994). Use of time and space by platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus: Monotremata) along a Victorian stream. Journal of Zoology, London 232: 117-131.

Gardner, J.L. and Serena, M. (1995). Spatial organisation and movement patterns of adult male platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus (Monotremata: Ornithorhynchidae). Australian Journal of Zoology 43: 91-103.

Gust, N. and Handasyde, K. (1995). Seasonal variation in the ranging behaviour of the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) on the Goulburn River, Victoria. Australian Journal of Zoology 43: 193-208.

Otley, H.M. and le Mar, K. (1998). Observations on avoidance of culverts by platypus. Tasmanian Naturalist 120: 48-50.

Serena, M., Williams, G.A., Thomas, J.L. and Worley, M. (1999). Effect of a flood retarding basin culvert on movements by platypus Ornithorhynchus anatinusThe Victorian Naturalist 116: 54-57.

Otley, H.M., Munks, S.A. and Hindell, M.A. (2000). Activity patterns, movements and burrows of platypuses (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) in a sub-alpine Tasmanian lake. Australian Journal of Zoology 48: 701-713.

Serena, M. and Williams, G.A. (2012). Movements and cumulative range size of the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) inferred from mark-recapture studies. Australian Journal of Zoology 60: 352-359.

LIFE HISTORY ATTRIBUTES

Serena, M. and Williams, G.A. (1997). Population attributes of platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) in Flinders Chase National Park, Kangaroo Island. South Australian Naturalist 72: 28-34.

Grant, T.R. (2004). Captures, capture mortality, age and sex ratios of platypuses, Ornithorhynchus anatinus, during studies over 30 years in the upper Shoalhaven River in New South Wales. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 125: 217-226.

Serena, M., Williams, G.A., Weeks, A.R. and Griffiths, J. (2014). Variation in platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) life-history attributes and population trajectories in urban streams. Australian Journal of Zoology 62: 223-234.

REPRODUCTION

Griffiths, M., Green, B., Leckie, R.M.C., Messer, M. and Newgrain, K.W. (1984). Constituents of platypus and echidna milk, with particular reference to the fatty acid complement of the triglycerides. Australian Journal of Biological Science 37: 323-329.

Handasyde, K.A., McDonald, I.R. and Evans, B.K. (1992). Seasonal changes in plasma concentrations of progesterone in free-ranging platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus).  Pp. 75-79 in Platypus and Echidnas (edited by M.L. Augee). (The Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW).

Jabukowski, J.M., New, N.P., Stone, G.M. and Jones, R.C. (1998). Reproductive seasonality in female platypuses, Ornithorhynchus anatinus, in the Upper Barnard River, New South Wales, Australian Mammalogy 20: 207-213.

New, N.P., Jabukowski, J.M., Stone, G.M. and Jones, R.C. (1998). Seasonal pattern of androgen secretion in the male platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus, in the Upper Barnard River, New South Wales. Australian Mammalogy 20: 215-220.

De-La-Warr, M. and Serena, M. (1999). Observations of platypus Ornithorhynchus anatinus mating behaviour. The Victorian Naturalist 116, 172-174.

Temple-Smith, P. and Grant, T.R. (2001). Uncertain breeding: a short history of reproduction in monotremes. Reproduction, Fertility and Development 13: 487-497.

Holland, N. and Jackson, S.M. (2002). Reproductive behaviour and food consumption associated with the captive breeding of platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus). Journal of Zoology, London 256, 279-288.

Grant, T.R., Griffiths, M. and Temple-Smith, P.D. (2004). Breeding in a free-ranging population of platypuses, Ornithorhynchus anatinus, in the upper Shoalhaven River, New South Wales: a 27 year study. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 125:227-234.

Hawkins, M. and Battaglia, A. (2009). Breeding behaviour of the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) in captivity. Australian Journal of Zoology 57: 283-293.

STRESS

McDonald, I.R., Handasyde, K.A. and Evans, B.K. (1992). Adrenal function in the platypus. Pp. 127-133 in Platypus and Echidnas (edited by M. L. Augee). (Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales: Mosman, NSW).

Handasyde, K.A., McDonald, I.R. and Evans, B.K. (2003). Plasma corticoid concentrations in free-ranging platypuses (Ornithorhynchus anatinus): response to capture and patterns in relation to reproduction. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 136A: 895-902.

VENOM

Fenner, P.J., Williamson, J.A. and Myers, D. (1992). Platypus envenomation: a painful learning experience. The Medical Journal of Australia 157: 829-832.

De Plater, G., Martin, R.L. and Milburn, P.J. (1995). A pharmacological and biochemical investigation of the venom from the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus). Toxicon 33: 157-169.

Koh, J.M.S., Bansal, P.S., Torres, A.M. and Kuchel, P.W. (2009). Platypus venom: source of novel compounds. Australian Journal of Zoology 57: 203-210.

WATER QUALITY AND FLOW RELATIONSHIPS

Grant, T.R. and Bishop, K.A. (1998). Instream flow requirements for the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus): a review. Australian Mammalogy 20: 267-280.

Serena, M. and Pettigrove, V. (2005). Relationship of sediment toxicants and water quality to the distribution of platypus populations in urban streams. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 24: 679-689.

Martin, E.H., Walsh, C.J., Serena, M. and Webb, J.A. (2014). Urban stormwater runoff limits distribution of platypus. Austral Ecology 39: 337-345.

 

Updated: March 2016